The observable examined

Archive for September 2012

n of 1 medicine

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The history of modern medicine begins around late 18th century with Edward Jenner’s discovery of smallpox vaccine and Humphrey Davy’s discovery of nitrous oxide, whose anesthetic properties proved very useful for making surgeries painless. Since then medicine has made tremendous strides in eradicating major diseases like smallpox, polio, malaria, cholera, and tuberculosis, in most parts of the world. Indeed, the list is long and impressive. Because of these advances, mortality rates have gone down significantly across the globe with a concomitant increase in life expectancy.

Western or allopathic medicine,  as currently practiced, treats the average. This approach has been very effective in treating a wide range of conditions – from the common cold to heart attacks, provided the underlying medical condition or disease has a common physiological basis that is broadly applicable across the entire human population. But, over the years, the field of medicine has discovered there are numerous diseases that have a genetic basis – examples include cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, and others such as Tay-Sachs disease, sickle cell anemia, which have an even more specific pedigree. These diseases have yet to be corralled and contained.  Recent advances in microbiology have spawned the -omics revolution: microbiomics, proteomics, genomics, metabolomics, to name a few. In an earlier post – the dawn of omics ,  I had tried to captured some of the excitement surrounding these emerging fields of study.

Numerous articles, on these topics, continue to be written in the popular press. Recently, microbes made the cover page of the Economist and the attendant articles can be found here- Microbes maketh the man ; Me,myself, us. The upshot is we have symbiotic partnerships with multiple strains of bacteria that make their home in different nook and crannies of the body.  Here are some specific examples (quoted from the article) on how these microbiomes help us “….The microbiome does many jobs in exchange for the raw materials and shelter its host provides. One is to feed people more than 10% of their daily calories. These are derived from plant carbohydrates that human enzymes are unable to break down. And not just plant carbohydrates. Mother’s milk contains carbohydrates called glycans which human enzymes cannot digest, but bacterial ones can….”

Disturbing this ecosystem results in a myriad of consequences. So,  “…these links are most visible when they go wrong. A disrupted microbiome has been associated with a lengthening list of problems: obesity and its opposite, malnutrition; diabetes (both type-1 and type-2); atherosclerosis and heart disease; multiple sclerosis; asthma and eczema; liver disease; numerous diseases of the intestines, including bowel cancer; and autism….” Probiotic foods then are supposedly targeted at restoring the balance…” If you missed it, yes, autism is on this list !!

The other branch of -omics that has gained a lot of currency in the media is genomics. The holy grail for these practitioners – $1000 genome (to sequence, that is). Matthew Herper of Forbes has put together a nice summary article( The Gene Machine) on the most recent developments in gene sequencing. One of the characters he mentions is Jonathan Rothberg, probably the reigning rockstar of this industry, for having invented among other things, the Personal Genome Machine (the article has more specifics). But the point here is gene sequencing has moved from the purview of giant labs to your desktop! Also, the turn around times for having a genome sequenced, for a panel of genes, have come down dramatically. Because of these advances, places like Baylor College of Medicine, MD Anderson and others are undertaking vigorous research efforts to understand and actively treat various cancers.

I was lucky enough to attend a few sessions over two days at the ION World 2012 conference where Rothberg and other luminaries gave keynote speeches. It was really exciting to hear these folks talk of the coming revolution in medicine. This is when I first heard the phrase “n of 1 medicine”.  N of 1 (or personalized medicine)  refers to the practice of medicine based on an individual’s “omic profile” as opposed to the traditional approach of medicine, which is based on the average profile (derived from large populations).

Clearly, we are witnessing medicine’s new frontier. For me, and I am sure for many others, the view from this frontier is breathtaking. Of course, there is a lot of hype surrounding all this. But discounting the hype, there is significant and steady progress being made through multidisciplinary collaborative efforts (cloud computing, bioinformatics, semiconductor technologies, and fundamental science). As of now, next generation sequencing (NGS) efforts are primarily focused on building the tools that allow us to ask the basic questions and get answers in the shortest possible time. Once past this, we will need to focus on translating the science into clinical practice. Because of its very nature, n of 1 medicine may require a throwback to the old fashioned pharmacies where your medication will be mixed in real time based on personalized omit profiling.

Opportunities, to participate in this revolution, abound.


Written by asterix98

September 30, 2012 at 2:49 am

How America lost common sense

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This cartoon succintly captures the role lawyers have played in stripping us Americans of common sense

I love this cartoon. It is a great commentary on the litigious nature of our society and how lawyers have contributed to a systematic erosion of common sense among the populace. It places enormous burdens on our society, in terms of costs incurred, to safeguard ourselves from other peoples mistakes. While accountability is important, individual responsibility  should have equal merit.

Disclaimer :  I retrieved this cartoon from the San Jose Mercury News website, published on Sunday Sept. 23, 2012 and is copyright of the cartoonist.



Written by asterix98

September 24, 2012 at 4:44 pm

Subjectivity of our existence

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As computer users, we are all familiar with the “sleep” or “hibernate” function. Essentially, the computer maintains its current state while “powering down” different parts of the system to conserve power. When you “wake up” the computer, it lets you pick up what you were doing from where you left off. The “sleep” and “wake” nomenclature for this behavior is not happenstance but is a direct analogy to how brains function. But there is one crucial difference. In computers, it is a very well understood process. The current state of the system is stored in non-volatile memory and reinstated on waking up. In brains, this analogous process has the magical property of consciousness – subjectivity.  Below I have excerpted a  passage from Antonio Damasio’s book – The Self Comes to Mind,  that  beautifully captures the essence of this difference (if you had not thought of it in these terms, it will be a true wake up call – sorry, I could not help the pun).

“….We all have free access to consciousness, bubbling so easily and abundantly in our minds that without hesitation or apprehension we let  it be turned off every night when we go to sleep and allow it to return every morning when the alarm clock rings, at least 365 times a year, not counting naps. And yet few things about our beings are as remarkable, foundational, and seemingly mysterious as consciousness. Without consciousness-that is, a mind endowed with subjectivity-you would have no way of knowing that you exist, let alone know who you are and what you think. Had subjectivity not begun, even if very modestly at first, in living creatures far simpler than we are, memory and reasoning are not likely to have expanded in the prodigious way they did, and the evolutionary road for language and the elaborate human version of consciousness we now possess would not have been paved. Creativity would not have flourished. There would have been no song, no painting, and no literature. Love would never have been love, just sex. Friendship would have been mere cooperative convenience. Pain would never have become suffering-not a bad thing, come to think of it but an equivocal advantage given that pleasure would not have become bliss either. Had subjectivity not made its radical appearance, there would have been no knowing and no one to take notice, and consequently there would have been no history of what creatures did through the ages, no culture at all.”

The discovery of mirror neurons in the early nineties and subsequent research to understand their role in social cognition is offering tantalizing insights into the neural substrates underlying this subjectivity – the hallmark of human existence.

Written by asterix98

September 8, 2012 at 6:52 pm

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